RULES FOR CLASSIFICATION OF SHIP, JANUARY 2016
Part C Ch 1 Sec 7
2.4 Stern tube bearings
2.4.1 Oil lubricated aft bearings of antifriction metal
a) The length of bearings lined with white metal or other antifriction metal and with oil glands of a type approved by the Society is to be not less than twice the rule diameter of the shaft in way of the bearing.
b) The length of the bearing may be less than that given in (a) above, provided the nominal bearing pressure is not more than 0,8 N/mm2, as determined by static bearing reaction calculations taking into account shaft and propeller weight, as exerting solely on the aft bearing, divided by the projected area of the shaft.
However, the minimum bearing length is to be not less than 1,5 times its actual inner diameter.
2.4.2 Oil lubricated aft bearings of synthetic rubber, reinforced resin or plastics material
a) For bearings of synthetic rubber, reinforced resin or plastics material which are approved by the Society for use as oil lubricated sternbush bearings, the length of the bearing is to be not less than twice the rule diameter of the shaft in way of the bearing.
b) The length of the bearing may be less than that given in (a) above provided the nominal bearing pressure is not more than 0,6 N/mm2, as determined according to [2.4.1] b).
However, the minimum length of the bearing is to be not less than 1,5 times its actual inner diameter. Where the material has proven satisfactory testing and operating experience, consideration may be given to an increased bearing pressure.
2.4.3 Water lubricated aft bearings of lignum vitae or antifriction metal
Where the bearing comprises staves of wood (known as “lignum vitae”) or is lined with antifriction metal, the length of the bearing is to be not less than 4 times the rule diameter of the shaft in way of the bearing.
2.4.4 Water lubricated aft bearings of synthetic materials
a) Where the bearing is constructed of synthetic materials which are approved by the Society for use as water lubricated sternbush bearings, such as rubber or plastics, the length of the bearing is to be not less than 4 times the rule diameter of the shaft in way of the bearing.
b) For a bearing design substantiated by experimental data to the satisfaction of the Society, consideration may be given to a bearing length less than 4 times, but in no case less than 2 times, the rule diameter of the shaft in way of the bearing.
2.4.5 Grease lubricated aft bearings
The length of grease lubricated bearings is generally to be not less than 4 times the rule diameter of the shaft in way of the bearing.
3.3 Shaft alignment
3.3.1 In the case of propulsion shafting with turbines, direct coupled engines or bearings with offsets from a reference line, the relevant shaft alignment calculation is to be submitted for approval.
The Society may also require the above calculation in the case of special arrangements. The alignment of the propulsion machinery and shafting and the spacing and location of the bearings are to be such as to ensure that the loads are compatible with the material used and the limits prescribed by the Manufacturer.
The calculation is to take into account thermal, static and dynamic effects; the results are to include the reaction forces of bearings, bending moments, shear stresses and other parameters (such as gap and sag of each flanged coupling or jacking loads) and instructions for the alignment procedure.
The alignment is to be checked on board by a suitable measurement method.
Pt c, Ch,1, Sec 9
1.1.1 The requirements of this Section apply to the shafting of the following installations:
• propulsion systems with prime movers developing 220 kW or more
• other systems with internal combustion engines developing 110 kW or more and driving auxiliary machinery intended for essential services.
2 Design of systems in respect of vibrations
a) Special consideration shall be given to the design, construction and installation of propulsion machinery systems
so that any mode of their vibrations shall not cause undue stresses in these systems in the normal operating ranges.
b) Calculations are to be carried out for all the configurations of the system likely to have any influence on the torsional, bending or axial vibrations.
c) Where torsional and axial vibrations may be coupled (e.g. due to helical gears), the effect of such vibrations is to be investigated.
2.1.2 Vibration levels
Systems are to have torsional, bending and axial vibrations both in continuous and in transient running acceptable to the Manufacturers, and in accordance with the requirements of this section.
Where vibrations are found to exceed the limits stated in this Section, the designer or the builder of the plant is to propose corrective actions, such as:
• operating restrictions, provided that the owner is informed, or
• modification of the plant.
2.1.3 Condition of components (1/7/2002)
Systems are to be designed considering essential components in a non-ideal condition. In particular, the following conditions are to be considered:
• propulsion engine: cylinder malfunction,
• flexible coupling: possible variation of the stiffness or damping characteristics due to heating or ageing,
• vibration damper: possible variation of the damping coefficient.
2.2 Modifications of existing plants
2.2.1 Where substantial modifications of existing plants, such as:
• change of the running speed or power of the engine,
• replacement of an essential component of the system (propeller, flexible coupling, damper) by one of different characteristics, or
• connection of a new component, are carried out, new vibration analysis is to be submitted for approval.
3.2 Documentation to be submitted
Torsional vibration calculations are to be submitted for the various configurations of the plants, showing:
• the equivalent dynamic system used for the modeling of the plant, with indication of:
– inertia and stiffness values for all the components of the system
– diameter and material properties of the shafts
• the natural frequencies
• the values of the vibratory torques or stresses in the components of the system for the most significant critical speeds and their analysis in respect of the Rules and other acceptance criteria
• the possible restrictions of operation of the plant.
3.2.2 Particulars to be submitted
The following particulars are to be submitted with the torsional vibration calculations:
a) for turbines, multi-engine installations or installations with power take-off systems:
• description of the operating configurations
• load sharing law between the various components for each configuration
b) for installations with controllable pitch propellers, the power/rotational speed values resulting from the combinatory operation
c) for prime movers, the service speed range and the minimum speed at no load
d) for internal combustion engines:
• manufacturer and type
• nominal output and rotational speed
• mean indicated pressure
• number of cylinders
• “V” angle
• firing angles
• bore and stroke
• excitation data, such as the polynomial law of harmonic components of excitations
• nominal alternating torsional stress considered for crankpin and journal
Note 1: The nominal alternating torsional stress is part of the basic data to be considered for the assessment of the crankshaft. It is defined in App 1.
e) for turbines:
• nominal output and rotational speed
• power / speed curve and range of operation
• number of stages, and load sharing between the stages
• main excitation orders for each rotating disc
• structural damping of shafts
• external damping on discs (due to the fluid)
f) for reduction or step-up gears, the speed ratio for each step
g) for flexible couplings, the data required in Note 2 of Sec 7, Tab 1
h) for torsional vibration dampers:
• the manufacturer and type
• the permissible heat dissipation
• the damping coefficient
• the inertial and stiffness properties, as applicable
i) for propellers:
• the number of blades
• the excitation and damping data, if available
j) for electric motors, generators and pumps, the drawing of the rotating parts, with their mass moment of inertia and main dimensions.
3.3 Definitions, symbols and units
a) Torsional vibration stresses referred to in this Article are the stresses resulting from the alternating torque corresponding to the synthesis of the harmonic orders concerned.
b) The misfiring condition of an engine is the malfunction of one cylinder due to the absence of fuel injection (which results in a pure compression or expansion in the cylinder).
3.3.2 Symbols, units
The main symbols used in this Article are defined as follows:
: Torsional vibration stress, as defined in [3.3.1],
1 : Permissible stress due to torsional vibrations for continuous operation, in N/mm2
2 : Permissible stress due to torsional vibrations for
transient running, in N/mm2
Rm : Tensile strength of the shaft material, in N/mm2
CR : Material factor, equal to:
d : Minimum diameter of the shaft, in mm
CD : Size factor of the shaft, equal to:
0,35 + 0,93 d-0,2
N : Speed of the shaft for which the check is carried out, in rev/min
Nn : Nominal speed of the shaft, in rev/min
Nc : Critical speed, in rev/min
: Speed ratio, equal to N/Nn
C: Speed ratio factor, equal to:
• 3 – 22 for < 0,9
• 1,38 for 0,9 1,05
Ck : Factor depending on the shaft design features given in Tab 1.
3.4 Calculation principles
a) Torsional vibration calculations are to be carried out using a recognised method.
b) Where the calculation method does not include harmonic synthesis, attention is to be paid to the possible superimposition of two or more harmonic orders of different vibration modes which may be present in some restricted ranges.
3.4.2 Scope of the calculations
a) Torsional vibration calculations are to be carried out considering:
• normal firing of all cylinders, and
• misfiring of one cylinder.
b) Where the torsional dynamic stiffness of the coupling depends on the transmitted torque, two calculations are to be carried out:
• one at full load
• one at the minimum load expected in service.
c) For installations with controllable pitch propellers, two calculations are to be carried out:
• one for full pitch condition
• one for zero pitch condition.
d) The calculations are to take into account all possible sources of excitation. Electrical sources of excitations, such as static frequency converters, are to be detailed.
e) The natural frequencies are to be considered up to a value corresponding to 15 times the maximum service speed. Therefore, the excitations are to include harmonic orders up to the fifteenth.
3.4.3 Criteria for acceptance of the torsional vibration loads under normal firing conditions
a) Torsional vibration stresses in the various shafts are not to exceed the limits defined in [3.5]. Higher limits calculated by an alternative method may be considered, subject to special examination by the Society.
The limit for continuous running 1 may be exceeded only in the case of transient running in restricted speed ranges, which are defined in [3.5.5]. In no case are the torsional vibration stresses to exceed the limit for transient running 2.
Propulsion systems are to be capable of running continuously without restrictions at least within the speed range between 0,8 Nn and 1,05 Nn. Transient running may be considered only in restricted speed ranges for speed ratios 0,8.
Auxiliary machinery is to be capable of running continuously without restrictions at least within the range between 0,95 Nn and 1,1 Nn. Transient running may be considered only in restricted speed ranges for speed ratios 0,95.
b) Torsional vibration levels in other components are to comply with the provisions of [3.6].
3.4.4 Criteria for acceptance of torsional vibration loads under misfiring conditions (1/7/2006)
a) The provisions of [3.4.3] related to normal firing conditions also apply to misfiring conditions except that restricted speed ranges are also acceptable for > 0,8. The restricted speed ranges in one-cylinder misfiring condition of single propulsion engine ships are to enable safe navigation.
b) Where calculations show that the limits imposed for certain components may be exceeded under misfiring conditions, a suitable device is to be fitted to indicate the occurence of such conditions.
3.5 Permissible limits for torsional vibration stresses in crankshaft, propulsion shafting and other transmission shafting
a) The limits provided below apply to steel shafts. For shafts made of other material, the permissible limits for torsional vibration stresses will be determined by the Society after examination of the results of fatigue tests carried out on the material concerned.
b) These limits apply to the torsional vibration stresses as defined in [3.3.1]. They relate to the shaft minimum section, without taking account of the possible stress concentrations.
a) Where the crankshaft has been designed in accordance with App 1, the torsional vibration stresses in any point of the crankshaft are not exceed the following limits:
• 1 = N for continuous running
• 2 = 1,7 N for transient running,
where N is the nominal alternating torsional stress on which the crankshaft scantling is based (see [3.2.2], Note 1).
b) Where the crankshaft has not been designed in accordance with App 1, the torsional vibration stresses in any point of the crankshaft are not to exceed the following limits:
• 1 = 0,55 . CR . CD . Cfor continuous running
• 2 = 2,3 1 for transient running.
3.5.3 Intermediate shafts, thrust shafts and propeller shafts (1/7/2006)
The torsional vibration stresses in any intermediate, thrust and propeller shafts are not to exceed the following limits:
• 1 = CR . Ck . CD . Cfor continuous running
• 2 = 1,7 1 . Ck -0,5 for steady state conditions within barred speed range.
Note 1: For intermediate, thrust and propeller shafts, the material factor CR is not to be taken as greater than 42,2.
3.5.4 Transmission shafting for generating sets and other auxiliary machinery
The torsional vibration stresses in the transmission shafting for generating sets and other auxiliary machinery, such as pumps or compressors, are not to exceed the following limits:
• 1 = 0,90 . CR . CD for continuous running
• 2 = 5,4 1 for transient running.
3.5.5 Restricted speed ranges (1/7/2006)
a) Where the stress amplitudes exceed the limiting values of 1 for continuous operation, including one cylinder misfiring conditions, restricted speed ranges are to be imposed which are to be passed through rapidly;
b) restricted speed ranges in one-cylinder misfiring conditions of single propulsion engine ships are to enable safe navigation;
c) the barred speed range is to cover all speeds where the acceptance limits (1) are exceeded. For controllable pitch propellers with the possibility of individual pitch and speed control, both full and zero pitch conditions are to be considered. Additionally, the tachometer tolerance is to be added. At each end of the barred speed range the engine is to be stable in operation;
d) the limits of the restricted speed range related to a critical speed Nc are to be calculated in accordance with the following formula:
e) where the resonance curve of a critical speed is obtained from torsional vibration measurements, the restricted speed range may be established considering the speeds for which the stress limit for continuous running 1 is exceeded;
f) where restricted speed ranges are imposed, they are to be crossed out on the tachometers and an instruction plate is to be fitted at the control stations indicating that:
• the continuous operation of the engine within the considered speed range is not permitted
• this speed range is to be passed through rapidly.
3.6 Permissible vibration levels in components other than shafts
a) The torsional vibration torque in any gear step is not to exceed 30% of the torque corresponding to the approved rating throughout the service speed range.
Where the torque transmitted at nominal speed is less than that corresponding to the approved rating, higher torsional vibration torques may be accepted, subject to special consideration by the Society.
b) Gear hammering induced by torsional vibration torque reversal is not permitted throughout the service speed range, except during transient running at speed ratios 0,3.
Where calculations show the existence of torsional vibration torque reversals for speed ratios > 0,3, the corresponding speed ranges are to be identified by appropriate investigations during sea trials and considered as restricted speed ranges in accordance with [3.5.5].
a) In the case of alternating current generators, the torsional vibration amplitude at the rotor is not to exceed 2,5 electrical degrees at service rotational speed under full load working conditions.
b) Vibratory inertia torques due to torsional vibrations and imposed on the rotating parts of the generator are not to exceed the values MA, in N.m, calculated by the following formulae, as appropriate:
• for 0,95 1,1: MA = 2,5 MT
• for 0,95: MA = 6 MT,
MT : Mean torque transmitted by the engine under full load running conditions, in N.m
Note 1: In the case of two or more generators driven by the same engine, the portion of MT transmitted to each generator is to be considered.
: Speed ratio defined in [3.3.2].
3.6.3 Flexible couplings
a) Flexible couplings are to be capable of withstanding the mean transmitted torque and the torsional vibration torque throughout the service speed range, without exceeding the limits for continuous operation imposed by the manufacturer (permissible vibratory torque and power loss). Where such limits are exceeded under misfiring conditions, appropriate restrictions of power or speed are to be established.
b) Flexible couplings fitted in generating sets are also to be capable of withstanding the torques and twist angles arising from transient criticals and short-circuit currents.
a) Torsional vibration dampers are to be such that the permissible power loss recommended by the manufacturer is not exceeded throughout the service speed range.
b) Dampers for which a failure may lead to a significant vibration overload of the installation will be the subject of special consideration.
3.7 Torsional vibration measurements
a) The Society may require torsional vibration measurements to be carried out under its supervision in the following cases:
• where the calculations indicate the possibility of dangerous critical speeds in the operating speed range,
• where doubts arise as to the actual stress amplitudes or critical speed location, or
• where restricted speed ranges need to be verified.
b) Where measurements are required, a comprehensive report including the analysis of the results is to be submitted to the Society.
Pt C, Ch 1, Sec 9
Main propulsion systems are to be free from excessive lateral vibration throughout the working speed range. Failing this, provision is to be made to limit the vibration amplitudes by modifying the dynamic system or restricted speed ranges are to be imposed in the corresponding regions of speeds.
4.2 Calculations and measurements on board
Unless previous experience of similar installations proves it to be unnecessary, the Society, on the basis of the characteristics of the main propulsion system concerned, reserves the right to require lateral vibration calculations to be submitted and/or measurements on board to be taken using an apparatus accepted by the Society.
Pt C, Ch 1, Sec 9
Main propulsion systems are to be free from excessive axial vibrations throughout the working speed range. Failing this, provision is to be made to limit the vibration amplitudes by modifying the dynamic system, or restricted speed ranges are to be imposed in the corresponding regions of speeds.
5.2 Calculations and measurements on board
Unless previous experience of similar installations proves it to be unnecessary, the Society, on the basis of the characteristics of the main propulsion system concerned, reserves the right to require axial vibration calculations to be submitted and/or measurements on board to be taken using an apparatus accepted by the Society.